Sukarno Born In Surabaya

The first President of the Republic of Indonesia,

Sukarno Born in Surabaya

Yousri Nur RA MH

Note: Yousri Nur Raja Agam MH

MONTH June is the month, “Bung Karno”. A century ago, Bung Karno was born on Mother Earth, Nusantara, the exact date of June 6, 1901.

Later in the month of June also Bung Karno went to heaven, to meet the Khaliq, which is dated June 21, 1970.

Bung Karno, who is gone, but the spirit juangnya “still alive” in the Indonesian People’s souls and hearts.

Below, I have noted about the Bung Karno, on “cross-Bung Karno’s fighting spirit.” I present this paper, as a mirror for our future and our grandchildren.

Indeed, nobody can deny, however, Sukarno was still eternal. Name the first President of the Republic of Indonesia, Dr.Ir.H.Soekarno, always be remembered. However gonjang ganjingnya earth-quake of politics, but history never lies. So true what he said to himself: “big nation is a nation that can not forget the heroes of services.”

Bung Karno was the hero. He is a fighter and history makers in the country which is now free. Apart from the shackles of colonial rule during the three and a half-century Dutch and Japanese army atrocities during the clutches of three and a half years. We are independent. Freedom from all suffering. Indonesia’s independence and freedom.

Bung Karno and Bung Hatta on behalf of the Indonesian Nation, August 17, 1945, proclaimed the Independence of the Republic of Indonesia, in Jakarta.

That’s all, not a gift, but the struggle. Struggle of the youth and children from all corners of the archipelago nation. Not overnight, but since many centuries. Process for the process, we finally arrived at the nature of independence, build and toward justice, prosperity can prevail. All of that, we are all ideals. Including, desire, will and ambition of Bung Karno.

You lead us, your people since independence until finally you’re gone. You take this nation to reality, in the eyes of the world. Indonesia’s unity in diversity based on Pancasila, baqa you up to nature.

Born in Surabaya

Raden Sukemi Sostrodihardjo, a father from Blitar, East Java is a disciplined man. He aristocrat from the lineage of King Kadiri. These men to marry girls of Bali, Nyoman Rai Idayu. It is also a blue-blooded woman, a descendant of the king in Singaraja Bali. Of the two ethnic mix, Java and Bali, was born a girl and a boy. The women were given a name and brother are named Sukarmini: Kusno. Kusno born in Surabaya, East Java, on June 6, 1901.

At the end of the year 1899 moved Raden Sukemi teaching in Surabaya. He taught at Lower School (elementary or primary school level) in Jalan Surabaya Sis. Raden Sukemi with his wife, lived in the village Pandean, Surabaya Peneleh area, not far from Sis, where Sukemi teaching. At that time, indeed many of the Balinese who live in the area Peneleh. It is said in the past, the pier is a place berlabuhnya Peneleh ships and sailboats from Bali.

Indeed, Peneleh area is still “impressed” as a stopover area of Bali. In this area many of the foreigners residing in Bali. In this region also stands to this day many hotels, lodging and travel to serve the people who come from Bali. In fact, the fruit market on the edge of the road Kalimas Peneleh be derived from the fruit market in Bali. Especially Bali salak and oranges.

When I lived in a rented house Pandean IV/40 Road, Peneleh, Surabaya, Nyoman Rai Ida was pregnant with her second child. Now, at the time of the sun rising up from the eastern horizon Surabaya, dated June 6, 1901, a baby boy born to the earth. Sukemi Raden gave the name of his wife’s second child, Kusno. However, until now no one gives certainty whether Kusno born with the help of midwives or traditional birth attendants.

Kusno is still a baby, then brought by Raden Sukemi moved with his wife to Blitar. Because Sukemi assigned to teach in the city of Blitar. In Blitar City is a small Kusno large families living together Sukemi Raden.

Kelud erupts

When I moved to Blitar, the atmosphere is still tense in Blitar. Some residents still displaced by the eruption of Mount Kelud. From the crater is still flowing lava. The slope of this mountain floods hit. Galodo that all plants and immerse meleluluhlantakkan mud craters up to the Brantas River. District and City of Blitar and Kediri districts and municipalities, even to the heaven of Psychology and Tulungagung ash cloud.

Now, as a result, the infant’s Kusno affected. He was sick and often sickly. His father, Raden Sukemi Muslim and believe in Javanese culture, have a hunch, that one gives names to their children. Kusno name given to her son was considered unsuitable. Maybe it is also wrong.

In order to avoid the pain caused by the wrong name, according to Javanese tradition, the name was changed to Kusno: Sukarno. So similar to  sister, Sukarmini.

Small Sukarno became big. Sent to school, be smart and clever. He continues to be grown adults. After becoming an adult human being clever-clever, Sukarno was able to explore science and challenging era. He became a leader. He was able to lead itself into the human understanding and a certain character. Jonathan can fall in love. Sukarno was then married: have a wife, then have children and he became a father.

Greatness itself makes it not only the father of her children, but he became the “Father of the Nation”. He became leader of the country. He became leader of the nation. We are a nation of Indonesia. His name was fluttering and famous. U spellings into OE, affecting also the name of Sukarno. As a result of people writing her name into: Sukarno. It is said that Bung Karno himself more happy if his name is written Sukarno, Sukarno’s not.

Fortunately, her name changed from Kusno to Sukarno. Why? Because, at the time of the struggle for independence in the 1940s, young men greeted each other with calls “bung”. Soekarno called Bung Karno. Mohammad Hatta, called Bung Hatta. Sutan Sahrir addressed as Bung Sahrir. Anyway fellow young fighters at the time, if the encounter is always yelling with his hands clenched: Free fella! How are you doing man! And so the bung.

Comfortable and appropriate to call for Soekarno, Bung Karno. Had his name not be replaced, fixed Kusno. Bung Kusno vocation course. I could have received nothing wrong, mistaken told to wrap. Because in the Java Language “bungkusno” meaning that you please gift-wrap or wrapped. However, if the Bung Karno, one-one can hear diarti “bongkarno” or means bongkarlah. Now, if this is not a problem. That means good. Once past about alihnama joke Bung Karno previously named Kusno become Sukarno.

Duke Ngawonggo, puppet characters known as the knight who cling to the principle. Until a famous poet, Mangkunegoro IV, depicts a knight Ngawonggo soul to become a model for Mangkunegaran relatives. There are forms of traditional songs, which are summarized in Tripama Dandanggula.

The original name is Duke Ngawonggo Suryaputra and is also known by the name of the son of Dewi Kunti Basukarno. Time Dewi Kunti was a virgin, but because of an error running the spell of Bathara Surya, hamillah him. What a shame the child king was pregnant before marriage. Must find a way out. But god is always completely possible. Kunti’s first child was not born through the womb, but through the ears. Therefore, Basu called Karno. He became known as the Duke Karno minded knight, never retreat and adhered to the principle.

Javanese society is still dominated puppet stories. Many were memorized by heart the story Mahabharata, Ramayana and other stories carangan. As an aristocracy, which is also the teacher of Raden Sukemi Lower School (SD), is very familiar with the stories of heroism that. He was very impressed with Duke Karno. It is the foundation that eventually his son’s name was changed to Kusno Sukarno. Of his hopes, his son will someday have a soul like Duke kesatriat Karno. Strong discipline and not easily discouraged.

Duke is still a puppet in a Karno Pandava brothers, is equally the child of Kunti, just from a different father. To eliminate the royal disgrace, so Basu Karno was born, was exiled. Discovered by a coachman and raised. Finally he was given the position by Kurawa. Yudha Barata war time, among Kurawa with Pandavas, the Duke of impartial Kurawa Karno, as a reciprocation for the mengakat Kurawa degree, although he knew pihk Kurawa wrong.

At war’s Duke Karno Barata Yudha fall on the battlefield. With the death of Duke Karno, Kurawa also wiped out. Pandavas regained their right to occupy the throne of the kingdom of Astina.

From the puppet story line that, if expectations raden Sukemi then materialize? Are there similarities between the Duke of Bung Karno Karno? Only historians who can answer it.

Intellect father

The age of five years, Sukarno entered the school in the SR (Lower School) Bumiputera. As a teacher, Raden Sukemi trying to find a way so that children can continue their education to the Dutch school. That is why at the time of Sukarno’s sitting in the fifth grade, her father tried to enter the sixth grade Sukarno to ELS (Eurpeesche Lagera School), a school for Dutch kids. Because from here, her father Sukarno wanted to someday go to HBS (Hogere Burger School).

Formal procedures difficult, eventually with a stance “machinations”, Raden Sukemi tried to contact his friend. Then whispering to and fro. It worked, and there was Sukarno as Indonesia’s extraordinary child came into the ELS time. Sukarno school until graduation in ELS. Then proceed to the HBS in Surabaya. At that time, there were only 78 people of Indonesian children who school there, the other children Netherlands and Europe.

Her father Sukarno’s desire to improve their versatility was not in vain. Sukarno did have a smart brain. Even the children of poor families who as a child was ill, managed to graduate with good. Sukarno during boarding school in Surabaya or HOS Cokroaminoto boarding home, continue their education to Bandung. In the Flower City’s, Sukarno signed in Tehnische Hoge School (THS) or technique that is now the High School named ITB (Bandung Institute of Technology). Here again, the natives are very few schools. They must have kids or a high-ranking nobles in an area, other than children of Dutch or European.

During the school in Surabaya, as well as college in Bandung, Sukarno enjoyed reading and a lot of writing for newspapers or magazines. He always wrote under the pseudonym “Bima” for each of his writings. Of whom he became a writer still in Magazines “ambassadors for the Indian” leaders Cokroaminoto HOS.

Bima name in the magazine The Dutch government is always a concern. He never wrote with the title “Destroy Capitalism immediately assisted by a slave Imperialism. God willing, it can be implemented immediately. ” The writing was really brave and sharp. Cokroaminoto shake my head reading the article. He was proud to see the latent talent of the young Sukarno, who was boarding at his house. The boy was kept nurtured and ultimately continue to grow.

It was not only impressed against karyatulis Cokroaminoto Sukarno. People movement, Dr.Douwes Setyabudi Dekker, also noticed that the young talent. Moreover, then he knows, Sukarno was also intelligent and eloquent.

There is one handle of the principle of Sukarno, the opinion of the Theosophists a philosopher, Swami Vivekananda. Opinions are always memorized Sukarno was: “Do not make your brain into a library, but wear pengetahuannmu actively.”

With that basis, Sukarno made comparisons between what is read from the book by what he heard from the speech. There is also seen from the surrounding nature and community life in sekelililingnya.

In addition to being a teacher, Cokroaminoto for Sukarno later also became in-law. Utari, who was still a teenage girl 16 years of age to marry. Not long after, Sukarno continued to Bandung and boarding school at home with his wife Inggit H. Sanusi Garnasih. Inggit later divorced with H. Sanusi and Sukarno was also divorced with Utari. Sukarno’s widow widower Inggit to finally establish a marriage. (The story of romance and Inggit Utari, please read on another part-Red).

Farmers’ That name is Marhaen

Currently studying in Bandung, Sukarno increasingly burning spirit of Fight. He always appeared on stage, if there is speech activity. Evidently he was then known as the candidate’s speech and called the “lion’s podium.” He also dared to deliver sharp criticism of the Dutch colonial government in power and invaded our homeland.

Sukarno succeeded in reaching an engineering degree on May 25, 1926, then two months later, on July 26, 1926, he co Ir.Anwari sekuliahnya friend had founded the Bureau of Engineering. However, due to time used for political activity, let alone the party he had founded called PNI (Indonesian National Party).

There is a story that is quite unique, and instead bring their own blessing for Sukarno’s political life. With its bike – this time a bike is a luxury – it is often around the city of Bandung. Even sometimes to the outside of the city. No dinyana when pedaled toward the South of Bandung, he brought a cool breeze to the edge of the verdant rice fields. In a stretch of fields he saw a farmer who was busy working.

Sukarno’s attention to indigenous farmers with ragged clothes were rags. He was leaning on his bicycle at the edge of the embankment, he continued to pay attention to the great peasant hoeing his field. When Sukarno still meneawang concerned about the fertile nature, the man who had stopped the digging work. He went to the bund and sit with ease. He took a cigarette from his pocket, dilinting and burned. It was obvious that she enjoys tobacco smoke.

Sukarno came over and said good afternoon, What a surprise, the farmer saw a smartly dressed young man approached him in the middle of rice fields. Bung Karno sat on the grass while a dialogue with the farmer.

When asked Bung Karno, he mentioned her name: Marhaen. From the questions and answers that are interested in Bung Karno’s innocence farmers. He is the owner of the rice fields, it is also a hoe that is used. But, after he had harvested, sold the results for wives and children. However, the fact that farmers remain poor. Not just one person Marhaen farmers like it. There are many more. Maybe not only in Bandung, West Java, but also in the whole of Java, Sumatra and the whole earth Archipelago.

When he returned to his home in Bandung, while pedaling a bicycle arise various fantasies and visions of the people, farmers and Sukarno of Indonesia in mind. Bung Karno was very confident, although as the owner of this Mother Earth, not least the natives whose fate was the same as Marhaen who met in Bandung in the South. Lots and lots of other Marhaen, whispering words of Sukarno cerebellum.

While nodding and smiling a little, Bung Karno get inspiration. He will fight for people’s lives like that Marhaen, The owner of a small nation, but still poor and the colonized. They must be lifted morale and spirit of nationality. With the fight for the destitute and suffering people that, Sukarno gave a draft manuscript that will be developed later: Marhaenism. This understanding then becomes the principle of the party she founded.

Even with the same Marhaenism, Bung Karno and then make the PNI became a big party with many followers. Greatness of his party picked up the name of Bung Karno be great. And, the Dutch colonial government finally considering potential engineer architect majors, but got the politics of law Cokroaminito gemblengan it.

Sukarno finally follow in the footsteps of the fighters in this country. He was thrown into prison in Bandung Sukamiskin East. Along with him were also arrested Billy Mangkuprojo, Supriadinata and Maskun. At that time, Bung Karno was menjadii Inggit Garnasih husband. This young widow who diligently visited Bung Karno to prison. Including the smuggling of books, which eventually became the inspiration Bung Karno to perform in front Landraad defense, the judge. Manuscript written defense in the Bung Karno Sukamiskin prison cell as the foundation of the inverted bedpan that table, because there is no table. It never used pot to pee, tetapai used to store books. Finally, the preparation of the manuscript in the tumultuous world of the cell.

Bung Karno, who was charged with committing crimes in violation of Article 169 of the Criminal Code (Book of Law Criminal Law) and violates Article 161, 171 and 153 de Haatzaai Artikelen. In essence, Sukarno with his friends in the PNI considered to incite the people and will do pemerontakan 1930. Bung Karno’s defense speech in front of the court was known by the title: “Indonesian Sue.”

This is a historical landmark struggle of the movement that really disturb the stability of security and defense of the Netherlands Government. Because, “Indonesia Sue” was not just a private defense Sukarno and his friends, but also a plea to the Indonesian people who colonized the Dutch East Indies Government.

In a final description of Bung Karno’s defense gave a political speech which, among others:

“Indeed, we beridiri in the presence of these gentlemen Court is not as Sukarno, was not as Gatot Mangkuprojo, rather than as Maskun or Supriadinata. We are standing here is as part of the Indonesian people who laments that, as sons of Indonesian mother and loyal devotion to him. The voice that we spend in the current court building, it does not stay inside the walls and the walls only. Suiara we heard also by people who listen to our servant, reverberate everywhere, across the plains and mountains and Samodra, to Kotaraja until Fakfak, the Ulu Siau near Manado up to the East. Rakyat Indonesia, which we heard this was felt to listen to his own voice. ”

Length of speech and political speech that was read Sukarno. Judge the judge just shut up and listen. Similarly, prosecutors and the policemen guarding the Netherlands. So, no wonder many are amazed chuckle over the defense’s Bung Karno.

Apparently chambers and prison cells rather than make the Bung Karno and fighters trauma. That’s precisely where they are forged and made a crater Candradimuka prison which made them more persistent and courageous.

After undergoing confinement for 330 days or two and a half years in prison Sukamiskin, Bandung, dated December 31, 1931 Bung Karno out of jail. Something unique happened at the end of that year. All taxis, public transportation in Bandung city, who was number 50 fruit of all chartered public who wish to pick up at the gate of Bung Karno prison. Not only that, any gig-gig-arrack marched toward the border town of Bandung in the direction Sukamiskin. So did the owners of private cars, and bicycles. Everything is heading in the direction Sukamiskin. Total carrying 98 cars that day, 320 bicycle buggy and dozens more.

Police kalangkabut. Finally, in the border city (Gemente) Bandung, all stopped. Only cars carrying Inggit and family, and Husni Thamrin who came from Jakarta, which may be closer to the door of the jail.

Bung Karno, then boarded the car with Inggit Garnasih family, the car behind Husni Thamrin. Arriving at the gate of the city, welcomed the noise Bung Karno incessantly. “Life of Bung Karno, Bung Karno’s Life”, and thus a voice cried incessantly seopanjang Sukamiskin to enter the street from City bandung Garnasih Inggit backyard.

Struggle Dwitunggal

Indonesian Youth Struggle increasingly persistent. Wind-wind shadow in front of the independence of the eye. From day to day the rays of light began to be felt. Beside in Bandung, Sukarno, who struggled with his PNI, Mohammad Hatta Airport in Jakarta, Syahrir, Husni Thamrin and his friend take action against the Dutch Government.

The fate of the fighters were not good. But full of sacrifice and challenges. In 1934, many leaders of the movement who were arrested and exiled far from the island of Java. They were exiled to the area that is still foreign. There are discharged into Digul in Irian, a place far from hububngan and even here the development of the swamp where malaria. Moh.Hatta and Syahrir, exiled to Banda Neira. Not long after Sukarno exiled to Ende on Nusatenggara, then moved to Bengkulu in Sumatra.

The presence of the Indonesian Japanese armies in 1942, bringing hope for freedom fighters. Moreover, Japan with the slogan “Greater East Asia Merdeka”, take and organize a strategy to destroy the colonial Europeans.

Japan has long noted the names of the fighters who are against the Dutch. Name Sukarno, Hatta and Syahrir, merupkan three names that always been the target of Japan. Even the Japanese were trying to take this to the three people not to hand off to the Netherlands. Because, when Japan signed in Indonesia, not a few political prisoners rushed the Netherlands to Australia.

Moh.Hatta together Syahrir Japanese rounded up and secured in Sukabumi. Bung Karno, who was in Bukittinggi has been contacted. With a small entourage after passing through the land route through Jambi, Bengkulu and Palembang, Bung Karno and his family arrived in Jakarta picked up by children HOS Cokroaminoto Anwar, brother of former wife of Bung Karno, Utari.

Two figures, Bung Karno and Bung Hatta, merupkan two names that could not be separated. The Japanese are always doing deals and negotiating with these two. Thus, since then tercetuslah designation for these two men as “duumvirate”.

Sukarno-Hatta duumvirate light-trengan talks in preparation for independence with the Japanese. Behind it, Syahrir with his friends to do the underground movement, trying to shake up Japan’s ruling position.

Based on the information “black radio” which monitored Syahrir and Amir Sarifuddin with his men, known to the Japanese position further pressured by the Allied Forces. Duumvirate who obtained the information of A-1 (certain) from Syahrir and Amir, then arranged to form a government ploy if Japan really surrendered to the Allies.

Cooperation with the Japanese side conducted Dwitunggal, continue to be developed to form the youth ranks. Digalanglah some young fighters and organizations pre-existing fighters. Together with other struggle leaders such as, Ki Hajar Dewantoro and KH Mas Mansur, Sukarno-Hatta Dwitunggal established Putera (People’s Power Center).

Japan saw the presence of the Son as a friend who can help their own interests, contrary to the movement, later known as the “Four series”, ie, Sukarno, Hatta, Ki Hajar Dewantoro and KH Mas Mansur, is preparing to welcome the dawn of independence.

In addition to the four series, there are also other groups of fighters. They consist of four groups. The first group leader Amir Sarifuddin, the second group led Syahrir, a third group of students, and the fourth group along with his group Adam Malik Sukarni, Chairul Saleh and Pandui Kertawiguna. In addition there are other groups who also went underground and controlled Muhammad Natsir Sjafrudin Prawiranegara.

Greater East war continues to flare. Japanese troops eventually train the youth of Indonesia into the cadres of fighters to help them. Founded PETA (Defenders of the Homeland), one of its presidents Affairs. Pros and cons to happen to the formation of the map. But after the Bung Karno convincing, then the developing map. Bung Karno said, is the goal of forming maps of Japan, for their interest, however, for us, is as an educational institution for young fighters. So, who entered map must be chosen from the youth-minded patriot and love of the nation.

Finally, it is proven, Dai Nippon Army increasingly desperate. At the time Japan started sluggish, the spirit of our youth continues to flare. Rose to commemorate independence.

Sukarno-Hatta duumvirate increasingly play a role. Moreover, at 1 April 1945, American troops landed in Okinawa. Japanese residing in Indonesia trying to keep the seconds defeat it. Dwitunggal activities with the young fighters, finally got the blessing of Japanese businessmen. Investigation Committee approved the establishment of the Emperor’s efforts Preparation of Indonesian Independence (PPUPKI). Members, in addition to Bung Karno and Bung Hatta, is KRT Rajiman Wediodiningrat and others.

Not only that Japan’s generosity shown. People are also allowed to sing Indonesia Raya and fly the flag alongside the flag of Japan.

Bung Karno and Bung Hatta, in a separate place together to make planning and concepts that would be born of government, Indonesia’s independence.

General Terauchi, Supreme Commander of Japanese forces in Southeast Asia, dated August 8, 1945, Sukarno-Hatta Dwitunggal invited to Saigon. Three days and two leaders of this nation are in this rice-producing country. Upon his return to Jakarta, Bung Karno really bring a fresh breeze. In his speech on August 14, 1945, Bung Karno said: “Before the maize flowering Indonesia already independent.”

Japan finally really “to its knees” to the Allied Forces after the Atomic Bomb Hiroshima and Nagasaki vaporize.

Seconds before the August 17, 1945, when Indonesia’s Independence was proclaimed by Sukarno-Hatta Dwitunggal, the story was quite gripping. Imagine, meeting of the Preparatory Committee of Indonesian Independence (PPKI) held on August 16, 1945 lunch at Pejambon, without the presence of Bung Karno and Bung Hatta. No one knows where it went Dwitunggal. Apparently, they kidnapped the youth group leaders to Rengasdengklok Sukarni, in the outskirts of Jakarta. New night, Bung Karno and Bung Hatta was allowed to return to Jakarta after the proclamation of independence, agreed to convey the Indonesian republic.

Midnight, August 16, 1945, at home Japanese Navy Commander, Maeda, on Jalan Imam Bonjol tek held meetings made the Proclamation of Independence.

And, next morning, Friday, August 17, 1945, 10:00 am, “the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence” reverberated throughout the world.

Bung Karno read the text with authority, so there are some who call vote Bung Karno radio blaring in the funnel. The flag raising ceremony followed by Red and White.

Thus “cross-warrior” Bung Karno, the son of the dawn was born in Surabaya, until Indonesia’s independence.

(Materials collected from various sources)


«Kirana Magazine Issue 45 (June 2010)

Hari Bhayangkara dan Proklamasi Polisi di Surabaya

Proklamasi Polisi di Surabaya

Mendahului Hari Bhayangkara

Yousri Nur RA_Hitam_Merah

Oleh: Yousri Nur Raja Agam MH  *)


HARI ini, Kepolisian Negara Republik Indonesia (Polri) memperingati Hari Bhayangkara. Hari Bhayangkara, bukanlah ”hari lahir” Polri. Sebab Polri atau Polisi, sudah ada sebelum Hari Bhayangkara 1 Juli 1946. Lebih unik lagi, Kota Surabaya punya “sejarah khusus tentang kepolisian”. Di Kota Pahlawan ini, Polisi pernah melaksanakan “Proklamasi Polisi”.

Dalam ejaan lama, Proklamasi Polisi itu tertulis:

Oentoek bersatoe dengan rakjat dalam perdjoeangan mempertahankan Proklamasi 17 Agoestoes 1945, dengan ini menjatakan Polisi sebagai Polisi Repoeblik Indonesia”.

Soerabaja, 21 Agoestoes 1945.

 Atas Nama Seloeroeh Warga Polisi:

Moehammad Jasin – Inspektoer Polisi Kelas I.

Ceritanya: Menjelang pendaratan armada kapal perang Sekutu di Tanjung Perak Surabaya, 25 Oktober 1945, situasi di kota Surabaya semakin mencekam. Kemarahan rakyat terhadap Indo-Belanda yang membonceng rombongan Palang Merah Internasional (Intercross) dan RAPWI (Rehabilitation of Allied Prisoners of War and Interneers) makin menjadi-jadi.

Selain pemuda yang bergabung dalam PRI (Pemuda Republik Indonesia) dan BKR (Badan Keamanan Rakyat), polisi juga mempunyai peran yang cukup menentukan menjelang dan sesudah Proklamasi Kemerdekaan RI, 17 Agustus 1945. Ketika terjadi insiden bendera, 19 September 1945, polisi bergerak cepat, mereka menyatu dengan massa.

Bahkan di Surabaya, selain polisi umum ada pasukan PI (Polisi Istimewa) yang sangat disegani. PI adalah jelmaan dari CSP (Central Special Police). Apalagi saat bulan Agustus 1945 itu, hanya polisi yang masih memegang senjata. Sebab setelah Jepang menyerah tanpa syarat kepada Sekutu, penguasa Jepang di Indonesia membubarkan tentara PETA dan Heiho. Jepang memulangkan para pemuda yang dilatih dalam pasukan PETA (Pembela Tanah Air) dan Heiho dan senjata mereka dilucuti.

Karena polisi mempunyai peran yang istimewa dalam masyarakat, maka kondisi itu dimanfaatkan untuk melakukan pemantapan. Dalam buku “Sejarah Kepolisian di Indonesia”, disebutkan: di Surabaya, Komandan Polisi Istimewa Jawa Timur, Inspektur Polisi Kelas I (Iptu) Moehammad Jasin, memproklamasikan kedudukan kepolisian pada tanggal 21 Agustus 1945.

Proklamasi polisi itu merupakan suatu tekad anggota polisi untuk berjuang melawan tentara Jepang yang masih bersenjata lengkap, walaupun sudah menyerah. Proklamasi polisi juga bertujuan untuk meyakinkan rakyat, bahwa polisi adalah aparat negara yang setia kepada Republik Indonesia. Dengan demikian, rakyat dapat melihat bahwa polisi bukanlah alat penjajah.

Jadi, di Surabaya, Kepolisian Republik Indonesia lahir mendahului keberadaan polisi secara resmi di Indonesia yang ditetapkan sebagai Hari Bhayangkara, 1 Juli 1946.

Dalam waktu singkat, polisi melakukan koordinasi dengan pejuang yang tergabung dalam PRI (Pemuda Republik Indonesia) dan BKR (Badan Keamanan Rakyat) yang kemudian berubah nama menjadi TKR (Tentara Keamanan Rakyat), serta BPRI (Barisan Pemberontakan Republik Indonesia) pimpinan Sutomo (Bung Tomo). Mereka bahu-membahu dan menyatu dalam berbagai kegiatan pengamanan dan perlawanan terhadap tindakan yang dilakukan serdadu Jepang dan anak-anak muda Indo-Belanda.

Selama bulan September dan Oktober 1945, situasi bercampur antara semangat kemerdekaan oleh rakyat dan sikap Jepang “yang kalah perang” tetapi masih bersenjata. Di samping itu, utusan yang mempersiapkan kedatangan pasukan Sekutu juga sudah terlihat. Jepang tidak begitu saja menyerahkan senjatanya kepada para pemuda yang berusaha merampas senjata yang dipegangnya. Namun dalam beberapa kasus, pihak Jepang hanya bersedia menyerahkan senjatanya kepada polisi, seraya minta jaminan keselamatan.

Perebutan Senjata

Situasi ekplosif yang berjalan hampir dua minggu sejak Proklamasi Kemerdekaan RI, 17 Agustus 1945, di Surabaya berubah dengan cepat. Dalam buku “Pertempuran Surabaya” yang diedit Prof.Dr.Nugroho Notosusanto disebutkan tanggal 2 September 1945 tersusun kepemimpinan BKR (Badan Keamanan Rakyat) di Surabaya. Para pemuda di kampung-kampung dan pabrik-pabrik menyusun kekuatan dan penjagaan keamanan.

Tentara Peta dilucuti senjatanya sebelum dibubarkan. Hanya polisi yang masih memiliki senjata. Sekalipun polisi masih memiliki senjata, bukan tidak mungkin Jepang akan melucuti mereka. Karena peristiwa pelucutan senjata Peta secara licik itu, seorang bekas daidanco Gresik, bernama drg.Moestopo memerintahkan kepada bekas shodanco Abdurahman untuk menghubungi kepala polisi M.Jasin.

Drg.Moestopo berpesan melalui suratnya yang mengingatkan polisi jangan sampai ditipu oleh Jepang, seperti Peta. Abdurahman pergi ke SMT (Sekolah Menengah Tinggi) menghubungi Isman. Bersama Isman ia menghadap M.Jasin. Adanya pesan itu, menjadikan polisi waspada terhadap kemungkinan atau usaha melucuti dirinya.

Pemuda-pemuda sebagian besar tidak memiliki senjata apai. Yang digunakan hanya senjata tradisional, seperti bambu runcing (takeyari), kelewang, pedang, clurit dan lain-lain. Mereka memerlukan senjata api.

Tentunya untuk mendapatkan senjata itu tidak gratis dari Jepang, tetapi harus direbut. Nah, api pembakarnya telah dinyalakan oleh KNI dan membuat maklumat pemerintah daerah yang tertuang di dalam Proklamasi RI daerah Surabaya tanggal 3 September 1945. Mulai saat itulah Surabaya memulai revolusi. Sasaran pokoknya adalah gudang-gudang penyimpanan senjata Jepang. Tindakan pertama yang dilakukan adalah melucuti pasukan-pasukan Jepang yang menjaga dan menguasai senjata.

Pada waktu itu gudang senjata Jepang yang terbesar terletak di Sawahan di gedung sekolah Don Bosco. Gudang senjata ini dikuasai oleh Dai 10360 Butai Kaisutiro Butai yang dipimpin oleh Mayor Hazimoto, dengan personil Jepang 16 orang dan heiho satu peleton. Sebelumnya di sana ada 150 orang karyawan sipil, tetapi mereka sudah diberhentikan sejak bulan Agustus 1945. Namun mereka masih dipekerjakan untuk menginventarisasi senjata yang akan diserahkan kepada Serikat (Sekutu).

Dari karyawan yang masih ada di gudang itulah diperoleh keterangan tentang keadaan arsenal Don Bosco. Informasi itu disebarluaskan dan kemudian tempat inilah yang menjadi sasaran pertama para pemuda. Tanggal 16 September 1945, gudang mesiu Don Bosco dikepung pemuda, pelajar dan massa rakyat. Beberapa orang maju menemui pimpinannya. Mereka adalah Subianto Notowardojo dan Mamahit guru Sekolah Teknik Don Bosco, serta seorang wartawan bernama Sutomo (dikenal dengan panggilan: Bung Tomo).

Ketiga orang ini berdiplomasi agar kekuasaan arsenal diserahkan kepada mereka. Mayor Hazimoto setuju dengan penyerahan itu, tetapi yang menerima harus polisi. M.Jasin beserta anak buahnya dari Polisi Istimewa, maju dan menandatangani naskah serah terima penguasaan arsenal. Sutomo dengan segenap yang hadir menjadi saksi penyerahan. Jumlah senjata di arsenal Don Bosco tidak terhitung. Bahkan Bung Tomo pernah mengirim senjata ke Jakarta sebanyak empat gerbong kereta api yang diambil dari arsenal ini.

Para bekas tentara Peta yang dilucuti senjatanya tanggal 18 Agustus 1945 tidak tinggal diam. Bekas Cudanco Suryo bersama Syudanco Isa Edris pegi menemui Kohara Butai di Gunungsari. Di sana mereka diterima Kolonel Kohara Jingo. Kepada Jingo mereka meminta agar senjata yang ada di markas itu diserahkan. Sebagai tentara yang “kalah perang”, Kolonel Kohara Jingo tidak keberatan menyerahkan semua senjatanya. Hanya satu permintaannya, agar pedang pribadinya dikecualikan. Permintaan itu diluluskan. Berkat diplomasi ini berhasil diangkut senjata ringan dan berat yang jumlahnya mencapai 100 pucuk. Senjata itu sebagian besar diserahkan kepada pasukan Tentara Pelajar di HBS (Hogere Burgere School) dan kepada BKR Laut.

Usaha mendapatkan senjata terus berlanjut. Samekto Kardi bersama Isa Edris dan rombongan menuju ke bekas Daidan tentara Peta di Gunungsari. Di sana mereka langsung menuju gudang senjata dan mengambil 514 pucuk senjata yang terdiri dari 400 pucuk karaben, 14 pucuk pistol Vickers, 50 mortir, 50 tekidanto dan 30 pucuk senapan mesin ringan dan berat.

Pangkalan udara Morokrembangan juga diambil alih oleh pemuda dan polisi. Ali Jayengrono berdiplomasi dengan pimpinan pangkalan dan behasil mendapatkan beberapa pucuk senjata.

Jumlah senjata terbanyak diperoleh dari markas Jepang Tobu Jawa Boetai yang dipimpin Jenderal Iwabe. Caranya cukup unik. Pagi-pagi sejumlah pemuda mengepung markas itu. Kemudian, Moestopo bersama Wahab, Suyono, Mudjoko, M.Jasin dan Rahman dengan seragam daidanco menghadap Jenderal Iwabe. Kepada Iwabe, Moestopo atas nama pimpinan BKR, atas nama Gubernur Jatim dan atas nama Presiden Republik Indonesia, serta atas nama rakyat, meminta agar senjata diserahkan kepada mereka. Permintaan itu ditolak oleh Iwabe. Moestopo mengancam, kalau tidak berhasil, maka pukul 10.00 terjadi tembak-menembak. Ancaman itu benar-benar terjadi pada pukul 10.00. Masrkas Iwabe dikepung dan ditembaki. Anak buah Iwabe membalas, sehingga terjadilah pertempuran.

Jenderal Iwabe dengan perantaraan seorang kolonel meminta agar Moestopo menghentikan tembakan. Namun tidak mudah. Akhirnya, Iwabe mengumpulkan stafnya. Moestopo juga memanggil M.Jasin, Suyono, Mudjoko, Wahab dan Rahman. Maka terjadilah perundingan. Namun Iwabe tetap menyatakan tidak akan menyerahkan senjata tanpa ada orang yang bertanggungjawab. Moestopo menanyakan bertanggungjawab kepada siapa. Iwabe mengatakan kepada Serikat (Sekutu), sebab sewaktu-waktu mereka datang. Moestopo langsung menjawab dan menunjuk dirinya.

“Ya ini, pemimpin Jawa Timur, yang mewakili Gubernur, yang bernama Moetopo mantan Daidanco, ini yang bertanggungjawab”, kata Moestopo menunjuk ke arah dirinya.

Oleh staf Jenderal Iwabe, Moestopo disodori naskah dalam bahasa Jepang. Tanpa menunggu lebih lama naskah itu ditandatangani berganti-ganti, mulai dari Moestopo disusul Suyono, Mudjoko, M.Jasin, Abdul Wahab dan Rahman.

Setelah penandatanganan, gudang senjata di tingkat bawah dibuka. Pemuda-pemuda berhamburan memasuki gudang senjata dan dibagi-bagikan. Markas pimpinan Iwabe itupun kemudian diambilalih, dijadikan markas BKR Jawa Timur dan “Kementerian Pertahanan” di bawah komando Drg.Moestopo. Sejata-senjata itu dibawa ke markas BKR Kota, Markas PRI, markas BKR Keresidenan dan gedung HBS untuk dbagi-bagikan kepada pemuda.

Perjalanan perebutan senjata belum selesai. Sasaran selanjutnya Kitahama Butai yang semula menjadi kantor Lindeteves. Dari sini berhasil direbut 23 tank, 18 senjata pengkis udara, enam pucuk watermantel. Perebutan senjata ini dipimpin Isa Edris dan Suprapto.

Bendera Putih

Sutjipto Danukusumo dalam bukunya “Hari-hari Bahagia Bersama Rakyat” mengisahkan peristiwa dari hari ke hari di Surabaya. Di antaranya juga bercerita tentang pelucutan senjata Jepang di Wonokromo, di sekolah Don Bosco Jalan Tidar dan di gedung GE (General Electronics) di Kaliasin, serta di berbagai tempat lainnya.

Salah satu peristiwa berdarah terjadi di depan markas Kempetai di depan kantor gubernur Jatim (sekarang menjadi taman Tugu Pahlawan Surabaya). Di sini rakyat bergerak untuk merebut senjata yang berada di tangan tentara Jepang, namun mereka melakukan perlawanan. Dalam tembak-menembak ini puluhan pemuda gugur dan beberapa tentara Jepang terluka.

Tembak menembak baru berhenti setelah Iptu M.Jasin datang bersama beberapa polisi dengan membawa bendera putih ke dalam markas Kempetai. Di dalam berlangsung perundingan yang cukup alot dan gagal. Tembak menembak terjadi lagi, namun Komandan Polisi Paiman dengan naik Bren Carier yang dikemudikan Pelamonia menerobos masuk ke gedung Kempetai. Tembak menembak terhenti dan kemudian dilakukan perundingan ulang.

Akhirnya, pasukan Kempetai bersedia menghentikan tembak-menembak dengan syarat jaminan keselamatan jiwa bagi seluruh pasukannya yang ada dalam gedung Kempetai itu. Komandan polisi itu mengiyakan, kontak senjatapun betul-betul berhenti. Seluruh pasukan Kempetai yang sudah menyerahkan diri dan senjatanya diamankan di Yarmark (THR atau Taman Hiburan Rakyat di Jalan Kusumabangsa sekarang).

Setelah terjadi pertempuran dan pelucutan senjata terhadap tentara Jepang, maka pemuda-pemuda mendapat pembagian senjata bersama amunisinya. Pembagian senjata ini dilakukan di berbagai tempat. Polisi, PRI dan TKR selain mendapat senjata juga menguasai beberapa kendaraan tempur milik tentara Jepang. Dengan adanya senjata di tangan itu semangat juang untuk mempertahankan kemerdekaan yang sudah diproklamasikan semakin berkobar.

Hari Kamis, 25 Oktober 1945, armada kapal transport dan kapal perang pasukan Sekutu pimpinan Brigjen Mallaby, sandar di dermaga pelabuhan Tanjung Perak. Dua perwira: Kapten Mc.Donald dan Letnan Gordon Smith diutus menghadap Gubernur Jawa Timur, Soeryo. Kedatangan utusan ini menyampaikan undangan lisan Brigjen Mallaby kepada Pak Suryo untuk datang ke atas kapal perang milik Inggris. Namun, Pak Suryo tidak dapat memenuhi undangan itu karena sedang memimpin konferensi para residen se Jawa Timur.

Dua perwira ini bersikeras mendesak, tetapi Gubernur Suryo tetap menolak. Dengan gerakan kurang sopan, tanpa pamit mereka meninggalkan ruangan. Pak Suryo terlihat marah terhadap sikap dua perwira itu.

Kabar pendaratan tentara Sekutu ini menyebar dari mulut ke mulut. Rakyat Indonesia di Surabaya tidak rela “tentara asing” kembali menguasai tanahairnya. Tekad perlawanan rakyat ini membuat Mallaby bersikap hati-hati. Apalagi, informasi yang sudah diterima dari mata-matanya, seluruh senjata Jepang sudah dilucuti dan rakyat sudah dipersenjatai.

Malam harinya, berlangsung perundingan antara Drg.Moestopo dengan Kolonel Pugh, utusan Mallaby. Dalam perundingan di markas TKR Jawa Timur, disepakati pasukan dari armada kapal Sekutu (Inggris) mendarat di Tanjung Perak dan berhenti 800 meter dari pantai. Dengan adanya pembatasan ini, konflik bersenjata dengan rakyat dapat dicegah.

Besoknya, 26 Oktober 1945, perundingan dilanjutkan antara wakil Indonesia dengan wakil Sekutu di gedung Jalan Kayun 42 Surabaya. Dari Indonesia dihadiri Residen Sudirman, Walikota Surabaya Radjamin Nasution, Ketua KNID Doel Arnowo, Muhammad dan Moestopo. Selain itu juga hadir beberapa orang dari PRI, TKR dan Poliri, yakni: Roeslan, Ronokoesoemo, Ronopradopo, Soehoed Prawirodidjo, Paiman, Soejono dan Soejanto. Pihak Sekutu dipimpin langsung oleh Brigjen Mallaby yang membawa sepuluh orang stafnya..

Ada tiga kesepakatan yang disimpulkan dalam perundingan itu.

Pertama: Yang dilucuti senjatanya hanya tentara Jepang, bukan TKR dan juga badan perjuangan rakyat lainnya.

Kedua: Tentara Inggris selaku wakil Sekutu akan membantu Indonesia dalam pemulihan keamanan, ketertiban dan perdamaian.

Ketiga: Setelah semua tentara Jepang dilucuti, maka mereka akan diangkut melalui laut.

 *) Yousri Nur Raja Agam MH — tulisan ini juga dimuat pada – 1 Juli 2009)